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Which of the following is the output when the following program is executed with a Python Interpreter?
During a password guessing attack, which HTTP request method would a Python program most commonly call to submit a username and password to a target website?
What will the following code in Python 3 result in?
outer x, outer x
inner x, inner x
global x, outer x
NameError, outer x
inner x, outer x
What does the following line of code do? example=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
Sends the data stored in the variable socket to the IP address stored in AF_INET
Gets data from all network sockets on the system
Creates an instance of a UDP socket for transmitting or receiving data
Transfers data from the local system to a remote system across the network
What is the output of the following line of code typed into a Python interactive session?
>>> print (8 << 1)
SyntaxError: invalid syntax
What does the attacker do in a SQL Injection attack?
Obtains an administrative login for a SQL database server
Finds and exploits CVSS-SIG vulnerabilities in a particular version of SQL database
Inject information into an SQL server via an undocumented administrative interface
Submits a string that is interpreted as a SQL database command
With a requests session object named browser, how can the expiration attribute of a cookie named MUID from gpyc.com/ be accessed?
What does the following command do? pip search syslog
Searches for python modules related to syslog
Searches for functions in the syslog module
Results in a syntax error for the pip function
Determines whether the syslog module is loaded
Which of the lambda definitions of the function some_code is equivalent to the following function definition?
some_code = lambda outvalue:invalue*2
some_code = lambda invalue:outvalue*2
some_code = lambda invalue:invalue*2
Which of the following modules allows a programmer to specify and spawn new processes, connect to their input and output pipes, and retrieve returned data?
What will the last value of x be when Python executes the following control loop?
In a SQL injection attack, which character would an attacker use to separate multiple SQL statements on a single line?
(double quotation marks)
% (percentage sign)
An attacker does not yet know the IP address of his target. He uses the socket module to create a backdoor program. He is writing the command to bind the computers current IP address and port 4444 to the backdoor
socket. Which command should he use?
GIAC GPYC Exam (GIAC Python Coder) Detailed Information
What Is GIAC?
Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC) is the leading provider and developer of Cyber Security Certifications. GIAC tests and validates the ability of practitioners in information security, forensics, and software security. GIAC certification holders are recognized as experts in the IT industry and are sought after globally by government, military and industry to protect the cyber environment.
GIAC exams are taken online in a proctored environment through GIAC's state-of-the-art exam engine, which was developed based on years of industry experience, customer feedback as well as ANSI requirements. Other unique features include the use of RealSkillTest exam questions to validate real-world knowledge; a post-exam performance evaluation by certification objective and a custom post-exam candidate feedback interface to help us further improve the testing experience.
The GIAC exam development process has been accredited under IEC/ISO/ANSI 17024 and is one of the most rigorous in the industry. The subject matter tested on GIAC certification exams is based on validated objectives for the given certification knowledge area. All GIAC certifications attempts consist of a single exam that covers all Certification Objectives.
Note: GIAC exams that are registered for in association with SANS training events do not become available to candidates until 10 days after the corresponding training event concludes. GIAC exams are NOT given the day after the course ends.
Throughout the exam, candidates may flag exam questions for the GIAC Exam Development Team review. Candidates are not allowed access to review exam questions after the exam is completed. Should you experience technical problems during your exam, please notify your proctor immediately. For information regarding the feedback procedure, please see the Exam Feedback Procedure page.
What are the details of the exam?
What will I be tested on?
Exam time length?
How many questions?
Details vary by Exam. Please visit http://www.giac.org/certifications/categories and click on your exam of choice to view exam details. Psychometric research is conducted to determine passing points to ensure that every candidate receives a fair and valid exam of the highest possible quality.
What will I be tested on?
For the list of objectives tested on a GIAC exam, please visit http://www.giac.org/certifications/categories and click on the exam of your choice. GIAC's exam development process has been accredited under IEC/ISO/ANSI 17024 and is one of the most rigorous in the industry. A committee of experienced IT security professionals develops initial objectives for each certification, which are then refined by a larger panel of subject matter experts through a formal Job Task Analysis (JTA) process. This ensures that all objectives are valid and relevant to the certification.
What is included with my certification attempt?
All candidates receive access to two practice tests to help them prepare for the certification exam.
How long do I have to complete the certification attempt?
All certification attempts are valid for 4 months (120 days) from the date of activation in your account.
How long should I study before attempting the exam?
On average, successful candidates study for 55 hours prior to taking the exam (this is in addition to any formal training you may receive). This is why candidates are given 4 months to prepare for the exam.
What are the suggested study tips when preparing for a certification attempt?
All certification candidates should take the two practice tests that come with a certification attempt. This will help familiarize yourself with the exam engine as well as the specific types of questions that will appear on your certification exam. Taking the SANS course associated with the GIAC certification you wish to attempt is a great way to prepare for the exam. Visit http://www.sans.org/security-training/courses.php for details. For additional tips for success, please visit: http://www.giac.org/certifications/get-certified/steps
Where do I take the exam?
All GIAC exams must be taken at a proctored testing center. Visit http://www.giac.org/about/policies/proctor for details on our Proctor Policy.
How is the exam issued?
All exams are issued through our online exam engine, which is accessed through your SANS/GIAC account.
What can I bring into the exam with me?
"GIAC certification exams are open book format, but not open internet or open computer. Candidates are allowed to bring one arm full of books and notes into the testing room, leaving all other personal belongings outside of the testing room. An erasable noteboard and pen will be provided for you. Workstation space is limited, so please plan accordingly. No electronic devices are allowed such as extra computers, CD-ROM, USB flash drives, phones, calculators, cameras, etc. Candidates will not be able to access anything stored electronically on any computer during the exam such as searchable .pdf or Word documents. We recommend that you print any study guide materials and bring them as hard, paper copies."
Once I earn the certification, how long is the credential valid for?
Certifications remain valid for 4 years. You must renew your certification if you wish to extend the validity of your credential. Visit http://www.giac.org/certifications/renewal for details on our Certification Renewal program.
The SANS Institute is GIAC's preferred partner for exam preparation. SANS training can be taken in a classroom setting from SANS-certified instructors, self-paced over the Internet, or in mentored settings in cities around the world. Each year, SANS programs educate more than 12,000 people in the US and internationally. To find the best teachers in each topic in the world, SANS runs a continuous competition for instructors. Last year more than 90 people tried out for the SANS faculty, but only five new people were selected. View Training Events
GIAC Practice Tests are a proven aid in helping to master material covered on GIAC certification exams and also help you become more familiar with the exam system and testing style. GIAC Practice Tests should be used as a study tool to help ensure you have a clear understanding of what to expect from the exam system, as well as the content that will be covered on the examination. Utilizing GIAC Practice Tests significantly improves your chances for success.
Every GIAC Certification Attempt, with the exception of the GSE Multiple Choice Exam, includes access to two Practice Tests (a $278 value) Retakes do not come with access to new Practice Tests. GIAC Practice Tests are timed; they are taken through our online exam engine and are designed to simulate the format of the actual exam, with the same number of certification objectives, multiple-choice questions and time limits. During the Practice Test, each time you choose a wrong answer, you will be shown the correct answer and an explanation that will help to reinforce the subject matter presented in the question. You have one attempt at each Practice Test. Once you begin a Practice Test, the timer starts counting down and cannot be reset, so make sure you have adequate time allotted before beginning a test.
If you need an additional attempt, you will need to purchase another test. There are not an unlimited number of Practice Test questions, so there is a law of diminishing returns if you retake the same practice tests over and over. Practice Tests are one tool to help ascertain if you are ready to attempt a GIAC exam, but Practice Tests do not take the place of study time or real world experience!
GIAC practice tests are accessed through the GIAC Certification Portal via the link in your SANS/GIAC portal account. If you wish to purchase a practice test, you may do so for a cost of $139 each. They are available via online registration. Once payment has been confirmed, practice tests will become available within 24-48 hours.
GIAC certification exams are open book format, but not open internet or open computer. Candidates are allowed to bring an armful of hardcopy books and notes into the testing room, leaving all other personal belongings such as wallets, purses, hats (and other head coverings), bags and coats outside of the testing room. Weapons are not allowed on testing center premises. Please leave weapons (guns, knives, etc.) at home or stored securely in your vehicle. An erasable noteboard and pen will be provided for you. Workstation space may be as limited as 4 feet (1.2 meters) wide, so please plan accordingly.
Electronic devices (laptops, PDAs, thumb drives, software applications, phones, calculators, cameras, etc.) are strictly forbidden. You will be provided with an onscreen calculator, should you need one during the test. Candidates are not able to access anything stored electronically during the exam (.pdf or Word documents, Internet websites, etc.). The testing process only allows one connection out to the GIAC Exam Engine. It will not allow connections to private web pages, so any material posted to private web pages is not accessible during GIAC exams. We recommend that you print any study guide materials and bring them as hard, paper copies.
GIAC Proctor Program Overview
All GIAC exams are required to be proctored.
Certification Exam Format
One Exam Format
All GIAC certification attempts are comprised of a single exam that will cover all certification objectives. Certification exams are 2-5 hours in length, depending on the specific certification attempt. For details on individual certifications, go to http://www.giac.org/certifications/categories
Open Book Guidelines
GIAC exams are open book format. Workstation space may be as limited as 4 feet (1.2 meters) wide, so please plan accordingly. You may bring an armful of hardcopy books and notes into the testing room. However, hardcopy reference materials having the appearance of practice test and/or exam questions and answers are strictly prohibited.
You will be provided with the following:
A computer to access the exam
An erasable note board and pen
An onscreen calculator, should you need one during the exam.
All other personal belongings are not permitted into the testing room. This includes wallets, purses, hats (and other head coverings), bags and coats. Weapons are not allowed on testing center premises. Please leave weapons (guns, knives, etc.) at home or stored securely in your vehicle. GIAC exams are not open internet or open computer. You will not be able to access anything stored electronically on any computer during the exam such as PDF or Word documents. Electronic devices including but not limited to extra computers, CD-ROM, USB flash drives, cell/smart phones, watches and cameras are strictly prohibited from being accessed during the exam. Personal writing implements are also not allowed.
Skipping Questions and Taking Scheduled Break
You have the option to skip a limited number of questions during your exam. These questions will not be displayed again until you are close to the end of the exam. You also have the option to take one 15-minute break during the course of your exam. Please note, however, that any questions you skip during the exam must be answered by clicking the "Answer Skipped" button BEFORE you take a break.
Finding a Proctor for your GIAC Certification Exam
The primary method for taking a proctored exam is through our testing partner Pearson VUE. Pearson VUE is an industry leader and offers more than 3,500 testing centers worldwide. It is expected that any candidate within 60 miles of a Pearson VUE testing center will utilize this option. Please click here to find a Pearson VUE testing center near you. Pearson VUE is adding testing centers as coverage gaps are identified. The list of Pearson VUE sites is updated frequently.
Once you have registered and gained access to your GIAC certification attempt in your SANS/GIAC account, you may schedule your exam appointment at a Pearson VUE Testing Center through your SANS/GIAC account for any date before your exam deadline. Please click on How to Schedule Your GIAC Proctored Exam for instructions. Exams slots are available on a first come, first serve basis. A good rule of thumb is to schedule your appointment at least one month before you wish to take your exam.
If you need any assistance scheduling your exam appointment or do not see a testing center within 60 miles of your location, please email firstname.lastname@example.org or call 301-654-7267.
Pearson VUE Guidelines
Please arrive at the testing center 15 minutes before your exam is scheduled to begin. This will give you adequate time to complete the necessary sign-in procedures. Please review the GIAC Candidate Rules Agreement prior to your exam appointment. GIAC requires the capture of a digital signature as your acknowledgement of the rules. If you arrive more than 15 minutes late and are refused admission or miss your exam appointment completely, you will forfeit your exam appointment and be charged a $150 seating fee if you wish to schedule a new exam appointment.
Please be prepared to show two (2) forms of personal ID.
Both must have your signature and both must be current.
One of the two must have your photo. The ID bearing both your signature and photo must be government-issued.
Your first and last names associated with your exam appointment must match your IDs.
If they do not, please cancel your exam appointment at least 24 hours in advance by logging into your SANS account and clicking on 'Certification Attempts,' 'View Proctor Details' and then 'Change.' Then update your first and last names in your SANS/GIAC account by logging in and clicking on 'Personal Information.' When your first and last names in your SANS/GIAC account match your IDs, please schedule a new Pearson VUE exam appointment through your SANS/GIAC account. If you arrive at the testing center and your first and last names do not match your IDs, you will not be permitted to take your exam and will be charged a $150 seating fee if you wish to schedule a new exam appointment.
Military Testing Centers: Any testing center with 'Military' or 'DoD' in the name indicates a U.S. military installation. Any candidate that schedules an exam at a testing center with 'Military' or 'DoD' in the name must provide a U.S. military ID or be turned away and charged a $150 seating fee if you wish to schedule a new exam appointment.
During your exam, if you encounter:
Distractions/disruptions - notify your proctor immediately
Noisy environment (Other candidates and a moderate noise level should be expected in the testing room. Earplugs or noise canceling headphones are available upon request.)
Uncomfortable room temp
Technical difficulties - notify your proctor immediately and mention that GIAC exams are Running Clock Exams. The exam clock does not stop when there is a technical issue, and lost time must be added back by Pearson VUE.
The system crashes
You lose connectivity
Non-technical difficulties - note your concerns in the comments section at the end of your exam and/or follow the GIAC grievance procedure at http://www.giac.org/grievance/ after your exam.
Feedback about an exam question
Failed exam dispute
If you wish to cancel or reschedule your exam, you must do so at least one business day (24 hours) prior to your exam appointment by logging into your SANS account and clicking on 'Certification Attempts,' 'View Proctor Details' and then 'Change.' If you need to cancel or reschedule your exam less than 24 business hours in advance or do not show for your scheduled exam appointment, you will be charged a $150 seating fee if you wish to schedule a new exam appointment.
GSEC: GIAC Security Essentials
GCIH: GIAC Certified Incident Handler
GCIA: GIAC Certified Intrusion Analyst
GPEN: GIAC Penetration Tester
GWAPT: GIAC Web Application Penetration Tester
GISF: GIAC Information Security Fundamentals
GCWN: GIAC Certified Windows Security Administrator
GPPA: GIAC Certified Perimeter Protection Analyst
GCED: GIAC Certified Enterprise Defender
GICSP: Global Industrial Cyber Security Professional
GXPN: GIAC Exploit Researcher and Advanced Penetration Tester
GAWN: GIAC Assessing and Auditing Wireless Networks
GCUX: GIAC Certified UNIX Security Administrator
GMOB: GIAC Mobile Device Security Analyst
GCCC: GIAC Critical Controls Certification
GMON: GIAC Continuous Monitoring Certification
GPYC: GIAC Python Coder
GCFA: GIAC Certified Forensic Analyst
GCFE: GIAC Certified Forensic Examiner
GREM: GIAC Reverse Engineering Malware
GNFA: GIAC Network Forensic Analyst
GASF: GIAC Advanced Smartphone Forensics
GSLC: GIAC Security Leadership
GISP: GIAC Information Security Professional
GCPM: GIAC Certified Project Manager
GSNA: GIAC Systems and Network Auditor
GSSP-JAVA: GIAC Secure Software Programmer-Java
GWEB: GIAC Certified Web Application Defender
GSSP-.NET: GIAC Secure Software Programmer- .NET
GSE Overview and Target Audience
The GSE certification is the most prestigious credential in the IT Security industry. The exam was developed by subject matter experts and top industry practitioners. The GSE's performance based, hands-on nature sets it apart from any other certifications in the IT security industry. The GSE will determine if a candidate has truly mastered the wide variety of skills required by top security consultants and individual practitioners.
Those who pursue an in-depth technical education in all areas of information security are the target audience for the GSE certification. Knowledge in a particular area, Intrusion Detection or Incident Handling is both important and valuable. Individuals who earn any of the GIAC certifications have worked hard, demonstrated essential technical skill, and should rightfully take pride in their accomplishment. But individuals who make the effort to not only learn, but to master all of the essential elements of information security belong in a very special group. These individuals will be the elite of Information Security, the top practitioners in the field. Those who pursue an in-depth technical education in all areas of information security are the target audience for the GSE certification.
GSEC, GCIH, GCIA with two gold
GSEC, GCIH, GCIA with one gold and one substitute
GSEC, GCIH, GCIA with no gold and two substitutes
GCWN, GCUX, GCIH, GCIA with one gold
GCWN, GCUX, GCIH, GCIA with no gold and one substitute
GSE pre-requisite baseline is: GSEC, GCIH, GCIA with two gold certifications. The GSEC pre-requisite is unique because of dual windows and unix coverage.
Pre-requisite Substitution Options
GCWN & GCUX combined can act as a substitute for GSEC
Higher level certifications can act as substitutes for gold papers. Visit the GIAC Certification Roadmap for details.
In addition, you must have real world, hands-on experience in these subject areas. The GSE hands-on examination ensures each candidate has a high-degree of competence in all certification objectives.
The GSE exam has two parts:
Part 1: Multiple Choice Exam:
The GSE multiple choice exam must be scheduled to be taken at a proctored location, like any other GIAC exam. Click here for instructions on How to Schedule Your GIAC Proctored Exam. Passing this exam qualifies a person to sit for the GSE hands-on lab.
GSE Multiple Choice Exam Requirements
1 proctored exam
Time limit of 3 hours
Minimum Passing Score of 75%
The GSE multiple choice exam follows GIAC's standard retake policy.
GSE Multiple Choice Exam Delivery
GIAC certification attempts will be activated in your GIAC account after your application has been approved based on adherence to according to the published prerequisites. You will receive an email notification when your certification attempt has been activated in your account. You will have 120 days from the date of activation to complete your certification attempt.
Once you successfully complete Part 1, you must sit for the GSE lab within 18 months of the date of completion. Failure to do so may require Part 1 to be re-completed.
Part 2: Hands-On Lab:
Part 2 of the GSE Certification Attempt is a 2-day, in person, hands-on lab exam. The Lab is generally offered twice a year, corresponding to national SANS conferences.
Day 1 consists of an incident response scenario requiring the candidate to analyze data and present their results via written report.
Day 2 consists of a rigorous battery of hands-on exercises drawn from all of the domains listed below.
GIAC reserves the right to request candidates who are unsuccessful in one domain of the GSE lab complete additional work outside of the GSE lab before awarding the credential.
GIAC reserves the right to require any candidate to retake the entire lab.
To reserve a seat for a GSE lab, you must have met the following two requirements at least 30 days prior to the lab date:
Successfully pass Part 1: Multiple Choice Exam
Pay the Lab registration and requested a seat at your desired Lab offering.
GSE Application Process
Once you have completed the necessary pre-requisites, you may apply for the multiple choice exam by clicking the Register Now button.
Once your application is reviewed and approved you may complete the registration process and pay the $429 exam fee.
Upon passing the multiple choice exam, you will be eligible to attempt the GSE hands-on lab. The lab fee is an additional $2,199.
Please allow up to 10 business days for application processing and approval.
GSE Certification Objectives
The skills required to successfully earn the GSE certification can be broken up into three major groups:
General security skills
Incident handling skills
Intrusion detection and analysis skills During the GSE lab, GIAC will provide you a laptop with the following tools installed:
Windows 7 Professional
LibreOffice (version 4.4)
VMWare Player (version 7.1)
The Putty SSH suite and WinSCP
A virtual machine with a customized configuration of Kali Linux 1.1.0a, with included security tools.
We have also installed Snort, SiLK and Bro IDS.
You can find a list of standard tools included with Kali Linux here (http://tools.kali.org/tools-listing).
Virtual machines with Ubuntu Linux Server
To ensure a level playing field for all candidates, you will not be permitted to load data, software, or electronic references onto the computer for the exam. We will provide external mice, but you will not be permitted to attach additional peripherals (monitors, keyboards) to the candidate laptops. To complete the exercises, you must exclusively use the tools and virtual machines provided by GIAC. Failure to comply will result in dismissal from the examination.
The following is a partial list of some tools and techniques you can expect to encounter during GSE exercises.
sniffers/IDS - wireshark, snort
Scanners - nmap, Nessus vulnerability scanning results
utilities - netcat, ssh, gpg, iptables
miscellaneous - metasploit, command line tools, and common attack techniques
All Exercises are Derived from the following General Objectives
Objective Outcome - The GIAC promise is that holders of the GSE will have the following capabilities.
IDS and Traffic Analysis Domain
Capture Traffic Demonstrate competence with common IDS tools and techniques for capturing traffic.
Analyze Traffic Demonstrate the ability to decipher the contents of packet capture headers.
Interpret Traffic Make correct judgments as to the nature of traffic to or from specific hosts in packet captures.
IDS Tools Demonstrate proficiency using common Open Source IDS tools including Snort, tcpdump, and Wireshark
Incident Handling Domain
IH Process Demonstrate mastery of the Incident Handling process.
Common Attacks Demonstrate a broad knowledge of computer and network attacks.
Malware Demonstrate solid understanding of malware and how to handle infected computers.
Preserving Evidence Demonstrate the ability to preserve evidence relevant to an Incident investigation.
Windows Security Demonstrate general knowledge of Windows Security and proficiency in a Windows environment.
Unix Security Demonstrate knowledge of Unix Security and proficiency in a Unix environment.
Secure Communications Demonstrate an understanding of basic cryptography principles, techniques, and tools.
Protocols Demonstrate a solid understanding of TCP/IP, UDP, ICMP, DNS, and other common protocols.
Security Principles Consistently demonstrate and practice bedrock security principles.
Security Technologies Domain
Firewalls Demonstrate competence with firewalls.
Vulnerability Scanners, and Port Scanners Demonstrate competence with scanning tools including vulnerability and port scanners.
Sniffers and Analyzers Demonstrate competence with Sniffers and Protocol Analyzers
Common Tools Demonstrate competence with common tools including netcat, SSH, Ettercap, p0f, etc...
Soft Skills Domain
Security Policy and Business Issues Demonstrate an understanding of the security policy and business issues including continuity planning.
Information Warfare and Social Engineering Demonstrate an understanding of Information Warfare and Social Engineering.
Ability To Write Demonstrate the ability to write quality technical reports or articles.
Ability to Analyze Demonstrate the ability to analyze complex problems that involve multiple domains and skills.
GIAC reserves the right to:
Request that candidates who are unsuccessful in one domain of the GSE lab by a slim margin complete additional work outside of the GSE lab before awarding any credential.
Require any candidate to retake the entire lab.
Change any exam specifications until 30 days prior to the exam.
GSE Lab Retake Policy — A person who has unsuccessfully attempted the hands-on lab must wait one (1) year before they are eligible for another attempt. If you wish to retake prior to 1 year, you may apply for a waiver by filling out the following form and emailing it to email@example.com.
The price for each lab attempt is the same. Due to the hand-on nature of the GSE lab, there is a *3 attempt limit* on GSE lab attempts.