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For IBM Lotus Quickr integration with IBM Connections which two of the following statements must be true? (Select two.)
The Lotus Quickr server and the Connections server must share the same database.
The Lotus Quickr server and the Connections server must be federated in the same node deployment.
The Lotus Quickr server and the Connections server must be using the same LDAP server.
The Lotus Quickr server and the Connections server must be in the same domain.
The Lotus Quickr server and the Connections server must reside in the same IBM WebSphere Application Server cell.
Answer: C, D
Ryan is enabling tracing manually via the IBM WebSphere Integrated Solutions Console to send to IBM Support. Which of the following log levels typically is the most appropriate for this task?
Sukumar is having an issue and has contacted IBM support. IBM Support has requested that he use the IBM Support Assistant (ISA) Lite tool to help them troubleshoot the issue. Which of the following describes how this tool can be used to help IBM Support resolve the issue?
ISA Lite allows IBM Support to download information from the machine for review to troubleshoot the issue.
ISA Lite allows IBM Support to access the machine and troubleshoot the issue.
ISA Lite collects information to send to IBM Support for review to troubleshoot the issue.
ISA Lite collects information and allows IBM Support to access the machine and troubleshoot the issue.
IBM Connections applications maintain delete and access-control update information for search indices for 30 days. If indexing is not performed for 30 days, what should the administrator do to ensure data integrity?
Re-schedule indexing using the CRON task.
Restart the search service to force indexing to start.
Delete and re-create the index.
Check the search logs to determine why indexing stopped.
What property needs to be set to true in order to see additional debug information in the ibmdi.log file?
source_debug=true in the profiles_tdi.properties
debug=true in the map_dbrepos_from_source.properties
nothing as this is enabled by default
source_ldap_debug=true in the profiles_tdi.properties
Mark's users have reported issues accessing the IBM Connections site. Users' browsers hang upon going to the site, and then, after several seconds, they receive the error message: "This page cannot be displayed." What could be the cause of this error message?
The application servers might have crashed and need to be restarted.
The web server might have crashed and needs to be started.
The database became corrupt over night due to backups.
The URL to access the site has expired and needs to be changed.
If the IBM Connections features cannot connect to the database(s), which of the following is the correct tool to use to verify JDBC settings and test the connection?
IBM WebSphere Integrated Solutions Console
IBM Tivoli Directory Integrator
Connections Homepage Administration
Michael is creating his IBM Connections databases using the provided scripts for IBM DB2. However, whenever he attempts to execute any of the createDb.sql scripts he gets the following exception:
"SQLCODE: -551, SQLSTATE: 42501, DOES NOT HAVE THE PRIVILEGE TO
PERFORM OPERATION ON OBJECT". Which of the following best explains the reason Michael is seeing this issue?
He failed to follow all the steps required to create databases manually, specifically the one to ensure that the owner ID has privileges to create databases, tablespaces, tables, and indexes prior to executing the scripts.
He failed to follow all the steps required to create databases manually, specifically the one to issue the db2start command prior to executing the scripts.
He failed to follow all the steps required to create databases manually, specifically to copy the db2jcc.jar and db2jcc_license_cu.jar files prior to executing the scripts.
He failed to follow all the steps required to create databases manually, specifically to execute the appGrants.sql script prior to running the createDb.sql script.
SSO can be configured between IBM WebSphere Application Server, IBM Connections, and Enterprise Content Management servers. Which two from the following list are prerequisites for SSO? (Select two.)
A third-party SSO product must be installed and configured.
Both instances of WebSphere Application Server must use the same LDAP server.
IBM WebSphere Portal server must be used for all SSO-enabled applications.
Both instances of WebSphere Application Server must have global security disabled.
Both instances of WebSphere Application Server must specify the same domain name.
Answer: B, E
IBM LOT-402 Exam (Administering IBM Connections 4.0) Detailed Information
C2040-402 Test Information / Examination Information
Number of questions : 69 Time allowed in minutes: 90 Required passing score : 69% Languages : English
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LOT-402 Administering IBM Connections 4.0
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Test Code : LOT-402
Test Name : Administering IBM Connections 4.0
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 137 Real Questions
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Administering IBM Connections 4.0 book
IBM records Studio | LOT-402 Real Questions and VCE Practice Test
This chapter is from the e-book ?
IBM facts Studio is protected in every DB2 edition. IBM statistics Studio offers a single built-in environment for database administration and utility building. you could operate initiatives which are regarding database modeling and design, developing database purposes, administering and managing databases, tuning SQL performance, and monitoring databases all in one single device. it's a terrific device that can drastically advantage a team atmosphere with different roles and obligations.
IBM data Studio is available in three favors: full customer, administration customer, and net console.
the whole client includes both the database administrative and the application building capabilities. The construction atmosphere is Eclipse-based. This offers a collaborative development ambiance by using integrating with different advanced Eclipse-based tools such as InfoSphere facts Architect and InfoSphere Optim pureQuery Runtime. note that one of the crucial superior InfoSphere tools are best protected within the DB2 superior variations and the DB2 Developer edition. you can also one at a time buy the advanced equipment.
The administration client is a subset of the entire customer. It nevertheless offers a wide range of database administrative functionality equivalent to DB2 illustration management, object administration, information administration, and question tuning. basic utility building initiatives similar to SQL Builder, question formatting, visual clarify, debugging, editing, and operating DB2 routines are supported. Use the full client for advanced application construction aspects.
The internet console, as the name implies, it's an internet-based browser interface that gives health monitoring, job management, and connection administration.
IBM facts Studio Workspace and the task Launcher
in case you have correctly put in the IBM facts Studio, you're requested to deliver a workspace name. A workspace is a folder that saves your work and tasks. It refers back to the computer building ambiance, which is an Eclipse-based mostly thought.
task Launcher is displayed, which highlights the following class of initiatives:
each and every class is described in additional aspect in its own tab. click on any tab, and you see the important thing and first initiatives listed in the container on the left. See figure 4.26 to get a concept on a way to navigate the project Launcher.
as an instance, the figure shows you the enhance initiatives. you could discover the important thing development projects on the left. On the excellent appropriate, it lists extra tasks related to development. On the bottom correct, IBM information Studio provides just a few documentation links the place you can study greater about development. the place acceptable, it also suggests the superior equipment purchasable in the InfoSphere Optim portfolio that follow to the task you have selected.
every task you had been to operate against a database requires to first establish a database connection. To connect with a database from IBM facts Studio, open the Database Administration viewpoint. On the accurate right corner, click on the Open standpoint icon and choose Database Administration.
On the Administration Explorer, right-click on the white house or below the new menu, opt for New Connection to a database. From the new Connection window, you see that you can use the IBM statistics Studio to connect with different IBM information sources, in addition to non-IBM statistics sources. select the database supervisor and enter the integral connection parameters. determine four.28 shows an illustration.
figure four.27 Open the Database Administration point of view
Pull down the JDBC driver drop-down menu, and you'll select the classification of JDBC driver to make use of. JDBC category four driver is used by way of default.
Use the check Connection button to be certain the connection counsel you enter is legitimate. click on conclude.
At this factor, you've got created a connection profile. Connection profiles include tips about the way to hook up with a database equivalent to indicating the category of authentication for use when connecting the database, specifying default schema, and configuring tracing alternate options. different crew contributors can import the connection profiles to their own IBM information Studio and be capable of deploy a group of constant connection settings.
To update the connection profile, appropriate-click on the database and select houses. residences for the database are displayed as shown in determine 4.29.
regular Database Administration tools
There are few other helpful administration initiatives attainable in the menu illustrated in determine four.29.
The manipulate Connection feature allows you to rename the connection profile, delete the connection profile, trade the user identity and password, and duplicate the profile. The again Up and repair feature enables you to setup a database or desk area backups. in the appropriate editor, that you would be able to specify the classification of backup, location of the backup photographs, and efficiency alternatives for the backup. Database backup and recovery is discussed in Chapter 10, “maintaining, Backing Up, and improving records.”
The installation and Configure feature allows you to configure the database. Database configuration and this IBM statistics Studio characteristic are coated in detail in Chapter 5. be aware from the menu, you can launch the Configure automatic maintenance editor. DB2 provides computerized preservation capabilities for performing database backups, reorganizing tables and indexes, and updating the database information as imperative. The editor enables you customise the computerized protection policy (see figure four.30).
determine 4.30 choose the automated preservation policy alternate options
The manipulate Database characteristic makes it possible for you to beginning and forestall the database. In DB2, that means activating and deactivating the database. Activating a database allocates all the quintessential database memory and features or techniques required. Deactivating a database releases the memory and stops DB2 features and approaches.
The display screen function launches the IBM statistics Studio internet Console. discuss with the area, “IBM statistics Studio web Console,” for introduction of the tool.
The Generate DDL feature makes use of the DB2 command-primarily based tool db2look to extract the information Definition Language (DDL) statements for the identified database objects or the complete database. This feature and gear come effortless when you wish to mimic a database, a collection of database objects, or the database statistics to an extra database. on account of the Generate DDL function in IBM information Studio or the DB2 command db2look, you receive a DDL script. The script contains statements to re-create the database objects you have chosen. See determine 4.31 for a reference of the kinds of statements you can generate the use of the IBM statistics Studio.
determine 4.31 Generate DDL function in the IBM statistics Studio
For complete alternatives for the DB2 command db2look, confer with the DB2 counsel core.
The birth Tuning function configures the database to permit query tuning. You could obtain a warning indicating that you simply should set off the InfoSphere Optim question Workload Tuner (OQWT) license for advanced tuning ability. notice that IBM DB2 advanced commercial enterprise Server edition comes with OQWT. comply with the instructions to observe the product license or click on yes to configure the database server for tuning with the points complementary within the IBM data Studio.
When the database is configured to use the tuning advisors and equipment, you are introduced with the query Tuner Workflow Assistant, as shown in determine four.32.
From the query Tuner Workflow Assistant, that you can obtain a press release from a variety of sources and tune the observation. in the trap view, it gives you a listing of sources where you could seize the statements. determine four.33 suggests an example on shooting the SQL statements from the package Cache. This instance captures over one hundred statements. right-click on the commentary by which you are interested and choose display SQL commentary or Run Single-query Advisors and tools on the selected statement.
Run the query advisors and tools on the selected remark. you could now enter the Invoke view. The device collects guidance and facts and generates a data access plan (see determine four.34).
When the question tuning activities are complete, you are brought to the assessment view. It presents you the evaluation consequences and an consultant suggestion, such as the one shown in determine 4.35. The device documentation recommends gathering and re-amassing all of central records of the query.
you could also overview the access plan graph generated through the DB2 explain function (see determine 4.36 for an instance). be aware to shop the evaluation for future references and evaluate them if crucial.
The control Privileges function allows you to provide database privileges to the clients. check with Chapter eight, “imposing security,” for details about privileges and database access controls.
prevalent Database building tools
IBM records Studio consolidates the database administration and database building capabilities. From the assignment Launcher – increase, you discover a listing of key development projects similar to developing and working SQL statements, debugging saved methods, and consumer-described capabilities (UDFs). every task brings you to a tool that helps you accomplish it.
SQL and XQuery Editor
The SQL and XQuery editor helps you create and run SQL scripts that contain more than one SQL and XQuery statements. To launch the editor, open the statistics mission Explorer; under SQL Scripts choose New > SQL or XQuery Script. As proven in determine 4.37, a pattern SQL script is entered. that you may configure the run options for the script.
The editor formats the SQL statements nicely and offers syntax highlights for easier reading as you enter the SQL statements. The functionality content assist is also very beneficial. It lists the entire latest schemas within the database so that you can just opt for one from the drop-down menu. The editor also parses the commentary and validates the remark syntax. you can validate the syntax in scripts with distinctive database parsers and run scripts in opposition t distinct database connections.
SQL query Builder
The SQL question Builder permits you to create a single SQL statement, but it surely doesn't help XQuery. as the identify implies, the tool helps you build an SQL remark. It helps you seem to be at the underlying database schema or build an expression, as proven in determine 4.38.
Database Routines Editor and Debugger
saved procedures and person-defined services (UDFs) are database application objects that encapsulate application good judgment at the database server instead of in software-degree code. Use of application objects support in the reduction of overhead of SQL statements and the effects which are handed during the network. saved strategies and UDFs are also referred to as routines. IBM information Studio supports routines construction and debugging.
From the statistics mission Explorer, create a new data building venture. within the project, that you would be able to create a number of sorts of database utility objects reminiscent of saved techniques and UDFs (see figure four.39). To debug a activities, appropriate-click on the movements and choose Debug.
Former IBM Chairman's next move: Reinventing the global organisation | LOT-402 Real Questions and VCE Practice Test
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Probing IBM's Nazi connection | LOT-402 Real Questions and VCE Practice Test
with the aid of Paul Festa body of workers creator, CNET information.com June 28, 2001, 4:00 a.m. PT
due to the fact that its book in February, Edwin Black's ebook "IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and america's most powerful business enterprise" has stirred unparalleled controversy among college students of the Holocaust, American enterprise and guidance expertise.
On the booklet's liberate, Holocaust survivors filed go well with towards IBM for its alleged function within the Holocaust; Gypsies previous this month threatened their personal lawsuit.
notwithstanding the first go well with turned into withdrawn and the second has yet to be filed, a whole bunch of critics and historians have weighed in in opposition t the company, with others coming to its defense. The range of the controversy can be gleaned from the pages of BusinessWeek on my own, which in a March evaluate excoriated the "illogical, overstated, padded, and sloppy" e-book for fostering "a new fantasy--the automatic Holocaust," and in an April commentary talked about the "enlightening" booklet "should still be required studying for each first-yr MBA pupil."
at the coronary heart of Black's argument is that information expertise--in the sort of IBM's Hollerith punch-card machines--offered the Nazis with a different and significant device in their project of cataloguing and dispatching their hundreds of thousands of victims.
as the publication's title suggests, Black attempts to establish that IBM did not in simple terms vend its products to Hitler--as did many American agencies--but maintained a strategic alliance with the Third Reich during which it licensed, maintained and custom-designed its products for use within the machinery of the Holocaust.
IBM has answered to questions on its relationship with the Nazis mostly by means of characterizing the counsel as historical news.
"The undeniable fact that Hollerith equipment manufactured by way of (IBM's German unit) Dehomag turned into used by way of the Nazi administration has long been customary and is not new suggestions," IBM representative Carol Makovich wrote in an e-mail interview. "This information become published in 1997 in the IEEE Annals of the background of Computing and in 1998 in Washington Jewish Week."
Watson and members of the ICC board meet with Hitler in 1937. IBM additionally keeps, in a February commentary to which it refers most questions about the count, that the Nazis took manage of its German unit before and right through the struggle, and that the enterprise "doesn't have a good deal guidance about this length or the operations of Dehomag." Black vehemently disputes both claims.
IBM also defended Chairman Thomas Watson for his dealings with Hitler and his regime.
"As chairman of a massive international business and a robust supporter of foreign trade, he met and corresponded with senior govt officials from many, many international locations, Hitler and Germany amongst them, in the 1930s," Makovich wrote. "so far as we recognize, the character of the contacts between IBM executives and German government officers all through the Nineteen Thirties have been corresponding to these with other government officers in other countries and according to IBM practices in the quite a lot of nations in which the enterprise did company all over that period."
CNET information.com's Paul Festa mentioned the considerations with Black in a recent interview.
Q: What first received you attracted to this field? A: when I first went to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., I went with my folks, each of whom are Holocaust survivors. the primary aspect you see in the Holocaust museum is IBM's Hollerith tabulator. And on the entrance of the Hollerith is a big nameplate: IBM. For me these two words, IBM and Holocaust, did not compute.
i was actually frozen for some time staring at the desktop, considering of IBM and looking out lower back at the map of Europe. and then it got here to me. we now have investigated the militia intelligence, the diplomatic dispatches, the fiscal dealings, and the specific mechanisms of genocide, but no person has yet explored assistance know-how. indeed, until the present age in which we locate ourselves, the laptop Age, where we've an realizing that tips technology can make the pivotal difference in any campaign of peace or persecution--until the laptop Age, we couldn't even formulate the questions.
How did you go about gaining knowledge of IBM's position? We assembled a crew of 100, including researchers, historians, translators, archivists, children of Holocaust survivors, and World conflict II intelligence people. They worked in seven international locations in some 50 archives and yielded 20,000 files, which I equipped and go-listed. Then some 35 historians reviewed every line of my manuscript before booklet.
IBM engineered a strategic business alliance...extending right through the war that endowed the Hitler regime with the technology and the tools it needed to expedite...all six phases of Hitler's war against the Jews. but I ultimately assembled this darkish puzzle that had eluded the 15 million individuals who have seen this computing device in the Holocaust museum. I eventually linked the dots. and those dots are that IBM engineered a strategic enterprise alliance and joint planning software with Nazi Germany from the very first moment in 1933 and increasing all the way through the warfare that endowed the Hitler regime with the expertise and the equipment it crucial to expedite and, in lots of techniques, automate, all six phases of Hitler's battle towards the Jews. these six phases are identification, expulsion, confiscation, ghettoization, deportation and subsequently even extermination.
5 years in the past I started working on this critically and two years in the past went 24/7 with the team of a hundred. I spent these first years within the challenge finding out that almost nothing's been written on IBM's position in the Holocaust. indeed, lots of the documents and statistics I found out appear to be boring, innocuous corporate particulars. it be handiest when juxtaposed with different facts from different nations and archives that these shards of glass come collectively to kind this heartbreaking photograph window, exposing the huge vista of IBM's global relationship with Nazi Germany.
IBM claims that its German subsidiary came below Nazi control both before and right through World battle II. We're no longer simply talking about the German subsidiary. We're speakme concerning the Swiss, the Swedish, the Italian, the Spanish, the Polish, the Romanian and Brazilian subsidiaries--more than 20 subsidiaries observed throughout Europe and somewhere else. This became, really, a worldwide commitment via IBM to support the Hitler machine because it conquered Europe and as it destroyed ethnic peoples: Gypsies, Jews and others.
IBM would wish to say they lost handle of their German subsidiaries. it truly is obviously false. Thomas Watson and the manhattan workplace micromanaged every aspect of their subsidiaries in Europe and particularly in Germany, their most profitable foreign operation. The long island office became privy to all makes use of for his or her machines in Germany and Nazi-occupied Europe from the second Hitler came to vigor in 1933 until concerning the fall of 1941, two years after World conflict II begun.
bear in mind, IBM customized-designed the machines, customized-designed the purposes and custom-printed the punch cards. there were no common punch cards or computer wiring. classes to establish Jews, Jewish bank money owed, barrels of oil, Luftwaffe flights, welfare payments, educate schedules into camps, and even the attention camp suggestions--all these had to be tailor-made for each application.
Even after the us entered the war, when the Nazis appointed the custodian, all of the usual IBM managers were in vicinity. The Reich simply locked the earnings for a few years just as any receiver would be for any company in receivership. IBM collected all of the cash after the conflict.
Do you have got examples following the birth of World war II in 1939? analyze some statistics. In September 1939, Germany invades Poland. or not it's a bloody, heinous invasion. The rape of Poland became favourite everywhere. The hunger and brutalization of the Polish individuals was page 1 information all over, together with The long island times. warfare had been estimated for years. It became no shock.
On September 13, 1939, The ny instances experiences on page 1 that three million Jews are going to be "immediately removed" from Poland, and that they look like candidates for "physical extermination." On September 9, the German managers of IBM Berlin ship a letter to Thomas Watson with reproduction to workforce in Geneva via phone that, because of the "situation," they need high-pace alphabetizing gadget. IBM wanted no paper trail, so an oral settlement become made, handed from new york to Geneva to Berlin, and people alphabetizers have been accepted with the aid of Watson, for my part, before the end of the month.
That month he also authorised the opening of a brand new Europe-extensive school for Hollerith technicians in Berlin. And at the equal time he approved a new German-primarily based subsidiary in occupied Poland, with a printing plant throughout the street from the Warsaw Ghetto at 6 Rymarska road. It produced some 15 million punch cards at that location, the essential customer of which changed into the railroad.
we now have a similar illustration involving Romania in 1941, and The Sunday times has really placed the IBM files up on their web web site. you could get to the URL via EdwinBlack.com at either reports or Media. When Nazi Germany went into France, IBM built two new factories to deliver the Nazi struggle computing device. this is the 1941-'42 period, in Vichy, France, which was technically impartial. When Germany invaded Holland in may additionally 1940, IBM rushed a brand-new subsidiary into occupied Holland. And it even despatched 132 million punch cards in 1941, notably from big apple, to support the Nazi endeavor there. Holland had the highest fee of Jewish extermination in all of Europe; 72 p.c of Jews have been killed in Holland, compared to 24 % in France, the place the machines didn't operate successfully.
What exactly did the Nazis want IBM's gadget for? When Hitler got here to vigour in 1933, his need to ruin European Jewry turned into so bold an business, it required the elements of a laptop. but in 1933 no desktop existed. What did exist was the Hollerith punch-card system. It became invented via a German-American in Buffalo, big apple, for the Census Bureau. This punch-card equipment may keep the entire suggestions about individuals, areas, products, inventories, schedules, in the holes that were punched or not punched in columns and rows.
here is the identical technology we saw in Florida within the presidential election. The Hollerith device reduced every thing to number code. Over time, the IBM alphabetizers may convert this code to alphabetical assistance. IBM made constant improvements for his or her Nazi purchasers.
American entry into the warfare
What became IBM's involvement with the Nazis once the us had entered the battle? In October of '41, the whole world knew the us turned into about to enter the war. We had been preparing to enter when you consider that 1933, debating it. conflict fever became most intense from 1937. The question turned into at all times, "will we stay out of the struggle?" no one knew precisely when. Our entry turned into of course precipitated by using the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7. almost immediately before that, with sudden new buying and selling-with-the-enemy regulations in force--here is October 1941--Watson issued a cable to all IBM's European subsidiaries, asserting in effect: "do not tell us what you are doing and do not ask us any questions." He did not say, "do not ship machines into concentration camps." He failed to say, "stop organizing the defense force forces of Nazi Germany." He did not say, "don't undertake anything else to hurt innocent civilians."
IBM would want to say they lost control of their German subsidiaries. That's malarkey. They never lost control. He then bifurcated the administration of IBM Europe--one supervisor in Geneva, named Werner Lier, and the different one in ny, in his office, named J.L. Schotte. So all communications went from Switzerland to big apple. in the end there turned into a Hollerith department called Hollerith Abteilung--German for department--in just about each concentration camp. be aware, the original Auschwitz tattoo turned into an IBM number.
Watson stopped all communications with Nazi Germany without delay. And in factor of reality, he danced on the top of a pin to obey U.S. law. It become the felony participation in genocide--criminal since it become pursued through foreign subsidiaries from 1942 to 1945.
Do you contend that IBM played a task past the concentration camps--that it turned into a part of the German battle effort in opposition t the U.S. and other allies? IBM's position in organizing the German war machine is smartly documented within the e-book. IBM put the blitz in blitzkrieg. The whole war effort was equipped on Hollerith machines from 1933 to 1945. this is when assistance expertise comes to conflict. at the identical time, IBM became aiding the entire German struggle computer directly from long island unless the autumn of 1941, and thru its foreign places subsidiaries thereafter, massive Blue became assisting the Allied struggle computer to the hilt.
IBM become in can charge of the draft. IBM became one of the crucial few backyard the Pentagon who knew the exact date of the Normandy invasion; they had been calculating the weather. IBM machines broke the Enigma Code. a lot of what may do with a computer all through the late twentieth century can be carried out with Hollerith machines, however slower.
Describe your relationship with IBM as you had been discovering this e-book. when I first contacted IBM, I referred to i'd share all my documentation with them and, in exchange, i would want to see their archive. at the beginning, i used to be accredited. The PR individuals overruled the archivist, Paul Lasewicz. Then a group of historians wrote to IBM CEO Lou Gerstner, worrying I be allowed entry and calling IBM's refusal an obstruction of Holocaust background.
in place of destroy the documents, IBM observed it turned into giving them to "an tutorial establishment" for study. but the place did these documents come to be? now not the Holocaust Museum in Washington, no longer the center for Jewish heritage in manhattan, no longer the American Jewish Archives in Cincinnati. An IBM PR man gave them to long island school, to a Biblical archaeologist. They gave them to professor Lawrence Schiffman, a useless Sea Scrolls professional. He had six bins in his closet, ignorant of what changed into in them. but he became well-known with my prior Holocaust work and instantly arranged to let me see the materials.
I also arranged to view files in Stuttgart, and IBM blocked that and closed the facility the day I bought there. When observe bought out about my booklet they transferred those Stuttgart documents to an archive in Germany, however they cannot be viewed unless some problematic inventory is completed.
IBM nonetheless refuses to open archives regarding France, Holland, Brazil, Poland, Italy and Spain, and other units. In different phrases, all their archives are nevertheless closed. As I told IBM company PR, "Make me work difficult, make me work harder, i will be able to get all this suggestions."
Is your analysis ongoing, or is that this case closed as far as you are worried? i'm consistently getting new tips. simply a couple of days in the past, I acquired mind-blowing documents from Poland about some thing known as the Hollerith Gruppe. These have been unveiled on June 25 to scholars at the Leo Baeck Institute in ny. The Hollerith Gruppe equipped each factor of Polish existence and Jewish existence. These Krakow machines depended upon a assured deliver of millions of punch cards. The Hollerith machines did far more than establish americans.
My book is not about census. The machines additionally ran the railroads. They organized the "extermination by way of labor" campaign, where individuals have been worked to loss of life based on their job competencies and location. Slaves have been shuttled from vicinity to location based on Hollerith move-tabulations. tens of millions and hundreds of thousands of people went through Nazi attention camps throughout the 12-yr Reich. but on the peak of the Hitler regime, the whole camp potential was three to 5 hundred thousand. that's excellent traffic administration. After book, we also obtained the names of prisoners IBM expert to work within the extermination through labor software, and we found that a two-story constructing at Dachau nevertheless standing is the Hollerith constructing the place as a minimum two dozen machines were stationed. basically, there is reasonably a bit of, and it all most effective deepens the documentation.
IBM: Muted response
How has IBM responded to your booklet? With virtual silence and an initial press liberate designed to confuse individuals. First the company spoke of they hadn't study the e-book, but on the equal time it noted there turned into nothing new in the book. can't have it each approaches. My publication became 5 weeks on the most desirable-vendor list, and they noted they hadn't study it practically two months after e-book. And yet IBM PR declined to make a press release when requested via Public Radio in Washington. That preliminary commentary, incidentally, claimed historians have popular about this for decades. it is not proper. There isn't a single publication or scholarly paper anyplace in existence that even mentions the Hollerith branch in concentration camps. This homicide equipment was unknown.
IBM put the blitz in blitzkrieg. The whole war effort was organized on Hollerith machines. IBM PR additionally observed the enterprise lost control of their German subsidiary when the Nazis got here to vigor. that's absolutely false. The e-book costs the incidents chapter and verse.
The architect of IBM's denial of Holocaust involvement is PR manager Carol Makovich. She has developed a carefully crafted, private, 12-page memo that she faxes or e-mails to reviewers and writers. CNET got a replica. There are a number of aged historians who are skeptical about the ebook. They don't understand the vigor of relational databases, and counsel expertise confuses them. IBM prices this handful, hoping that message will have an effect on newshounds on time limit. we have certainly acquired about six bad experiences in newspapers, but additionally about 380 superb ones through the world. as a minimum a hundred of those laudatory reviews are up on my web web page. IBM won't even deny a single truth in my book. They simply hope the field will go away. It might not.
On Holocaust Day, in April of this yr, an article ran in about 20 papers across the U.S. saying that IBM need to ask for forgiveness, that IBM should still learn from its past and open archives. but IBM refuses to open the archives and confront its own previous. I suppose IBM's corporate PR has given ruinous counsel to IBM about managing this. no one wishes responsible the present IBM for what took place 60 years in the past. Why not simply come clean and circulation on?
What do you think bills for IBM's association with the Nazis? What become their motivation? It become in no way about the Nazism. It was under no circumstances concerning the anti-Semitism. It became most effective in regards to the cash. They failed to hate Poles once they spread out a subsidiary in battle-torn Poland. They failed to hate the Dutch when they opened up the subsidiary in Holland simply earlier than the Nazis moved in, or the French once they ramped up the subsidiary in occupied France. They didn't hate the Brits or the americans when Hollerith machines were used to goal the V2 rockets. It wasn't very own--it became just enterprise.
Why single out IBM out of the entire other agencies, American and otherwise, that did business with the Nazis? I haven't singled any one out. IBM changed into nearly the most effective organization of punch-card expertise. there have been many americans imparting oil, presenting weapons. It wasn't me who singled IBM out. IBM uncommon itself as the dominant provider of this particular expertise and sued any business which tried to horn in on their earnings circulation. all through the struggle, IBM litigated in opposition t Bull in France, Powers in Europe, and even sued the German printer Euler in 1942, making an attempt to stop them from printing cards.
IBM is circulating a evaluate with the aid of The big apple times that argues you failed to "display that IBM bears some entertaining or decisive accountability for the evil that turned into carried out." What's your response to that remark? The gentleman who wrote that review is a social commentator--he isn't a historian. He simply wasn't bound. No issue. but some 380 reviews up to now have spoke of that we now have certainly made our case, and many historians and other specialists use the term "ironclad" and "incontrovertible." truly, 35 leading historians and Holocaust experts unanimously endorsed the ebook and its findings on the date of booklet. And their feedback are up on my web website. i ponder why IBM does not flow into the experiences of Newsweek, The Washington publish, Midstream, The Sunday times, and dozens greater. it's unhappy.
IBM best had a distinct and decisive role for what they have been worried in. There become a definite change between trading with the enemy, which many corporations engaged in, and the strategic alliance and joint planning campaign that IBM engaged in. as an example, average Oil deliberate and built a complete petroleum give line for Nazi Germany and provided it well into the war--during the battle. however Hitler knew concerning the combustion engine and about gas earlier than regular Oil ever sold him fuel. A British company was promoting uniforms to the Third Reich. Hitler knew the way to sew a uniform.
IBM did greater than just sell machine. Watson and IBM controlled the pleasing technical magic of Hollerith machines. They managed the monopoly on the cards and the technology. and they have been the ones that needed to customized-design even the paper types and punch playing cards--they had been customized-designed for each selected intention. That blanketed every thing kind counting Jews to confiscating financial institution money owed, to coordinating trains going into loss of life camps, to the extermination by labor campaign.
it's why even the paper types within the prisoner camps had Hollerith notations and numbered fields checked. They have been all punched in. as an instance, IBM had to believe their Nazi counterparts that Code 6 within the attention camps become extermination. Code 1 changed into released, Code 2 turned into transferred, Code three was herbal dying, Code 4 become formal execution, Code 5 become suicide. Code 7 was get away. Code 6 turned into extermination.
all of the funds and all the machines from all these operations was claimed by means of IBM as legitimate business after the battle. The business used its connections with the State department and the Pentagon to recuperate all the machines and all of the bank bills. They by no means referred to, "We don't desire this blood money." They wanted it all.
What's your opinion of the a variety of court cases that have been brought towards IBM on behalf of Holocaust survivors? I examine seven such proceedings--within the U.S., Poland, France, Switzerland. in the event that they all disappeared it could be first-rate with me as a result of I trust that IBM's responsibility isn't a be counted of money reparations, it's a matter of unveiling its innermost secrets and techniques. but IBM prefers hiding at the back of the photo of defending court cases to coming clear about their documentation.
every person methods the Holocaust in their method. Some choose memorials, others ignore what took place and want it might go away, and some prefer court cases. i am an investigative reporter and agree with the foremost reparation is illumination. curiously, the intent the Gypsies noted they sued turned into that IBM has invariably disregarded their requests for assistance. IBM has by no means apologized and under no circumstances spread out their archives. The company is boastful with all who demand answers, after which these individuals flip to the courts. once again, a person is giving IBM horrific advice. [end]
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Administering IBM Connections 4.0 exam braindumps
Talking Shop: Disk storage and networking topics for the Win2K Server exam | killexams.com LOT-402 Real Questions and VCE Practice Test
It’s unlikely that you’ll pass the Windows 2000 Server exam if you can’t demonstrate your expertise in administering disks and other storage devices. It’s certain you’ll fail if you can’t configure and troubleshoot Win2K network connections. In this, the third of four lists you’ll need to study to ensure that you’re ready for the Win2K Server test, I run through the disk storage and networking topics you should review before trying your hand at the Win2K Server MCP certification. Did you miss the first two installments?If you didn’t catch the first two lists in this series, you can read them here: "The Win2K Server exam: Your first list to study" "The Win2K Server exam: Your second list to study" Administering storageBe sure you can administer disks and volumes in your sleep.
DisksThe Disk Management utility, an MMC snap-in also found in the Computer Management console, should be your tool of choice.
Understand the different qualities of basic disks, used by default, and dynamic disks. Basic disks are composed of primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives. Dynamic disks, meanwhile, are composed of a volume or volumes constituting space from one or more disks.
Know the three different volume types:
Simple volumes contain space from just one disk.
Spanned volumes contain space from multiple disks; 32 is the limit. If one volume fails, all data is lost; performance degrades if data must be read across multiple disks.
Striped sets contain space from multiple disks; 32 is the limit. If one volume fails, all data is lost; performance is improved as reads and writes occur simultaneously on each volume. Make sure that you can keep RAID questions straight. Windows 2000 Server supports three software RAID configurations:
RAID 0—Also known as disk striping, RAID 0 uses from two to 32 disks and provides excellent performance but no fault tolerance. If a RAID 0 disk fails, all data is lost.
RAID 1—Also known as disk mirroring, RAID 1 uses two hard disks, one as an exact image of the first, thereby providing fault tolerance. If one RAID 1 disk in the mirrored pair fails, then data is still preserved by the other disk.
RAID 5—Also known as disk striping with parity, RAID 5 writes data across multiple disks simultaneously, thereby providing a considerable performance enhancement and fault tolerance. If one disk fails, then data is still preserved by the RAID array. Basic disks can be upgraded to dynamic disks without experiencing data loss. However, you must first back up your data and then restore it to prevent data loss when converting a disk from dynamic to basic. Dynamic disks can be extended only to NTFS-formatted volumes. Dynamic disks that were created by upgrading basic disks cannot be extended. When converting a disk to dynamic, 1 MB of unallocated space must be available.
Don’t get tripped up on a question covering laptops. Dynamic volumes don’t work with mobile systems.
Select the Rescan Disks option whenever you add disks to a system. Disks that have been taken from another system should be integrated using the Import Foreign Disk option.
CompressionYou need to know how to compress files. Two options exist.
Files or folders can only be compressed if they’re on an NTFS partition. Using either My Computer or Windows Explorer, right-click on the file or folder you want to compress and select Properties. Next, click the Advanced button and then select the Compress Contents To Save Disk Space check box.
You can also compress files and folders using the Compact command from the command line. Note that a file or folder can be either compressed or encrypted, but it cannot possess both attributes (even though check boxes, not radio buttons, are provided for those options).
Disk quotasWindows disk quotas are supported natively for the first time in Win2K. Quotas can be set only on NTFS volumes.
Quotas are not enabled by default. Quotas are set by disk, not by user. While you can limit the amount of disk space a user can consume on a disk, if you want to limit the user’s total disk consumption, you must administer quotas for that user on each disk the user can access.
Enable disk quotas by right-clicking on a volume and selecting the Quota tab. Click Enable Quota Management. You can elect to send users warnings when they reach their limit or you can prevent them from consuming additional space. For more information on disk quotas, see my article "Control users’ Napster-like habits with Win2K’s disk quotas."
Recover from disk failuresKnow how to read the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) path Win2K uses to boot. Repairing the Boot.ini file is sometimes critical to recovering a crashed or corrupted system.
If a system is booting Win2K from the first controller, the first hard disk, and the first partition, the Boot.ini’s ARC path will appear as follows:multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)
The multi entry specifies that a SCSI controller with the BIOS enabled is used or that a non-SCSI controller is in use. SCSI would appear instead of multi if a SCSI controller is used with the BIOS disabled. Disk defines the SCSI disk where the OS is housed, while rdisk specifies the (usually) IDE drive where the OS resides. Partition, meanwhile, indicates which partition holds the OS. Although all other counters begin with 0, the partition counter always begins with 1.
Remote StorageFamiliarize yourself with Win2K’s Remote Storage feature. Use it to store specified data at remote locations when local disks no longer have adequate disk space.
Remote Storage is installed using the Control Panel’s Add/Remove Programs applet. Select Remote Storage from Windows Components. Then, data that is not used regularly, or data you want to archive, can be stored remotely, thereby freeing up local disk space.
Administering network connectionsQuestions testing your networking expertise are sure to arise on your Win2K Server exam. Ensure that you’re well versed on all of the following topics.
Network protocolsWindows 2000 Server supports:
NetBEUI Know how to install and configure each protocol. Be sure that you know how to set frame types and network numbers when using NWLink. Remember that DLC is used to communicate with mainframes and to print to Hewlett-Packard printers. Be especially fluent with TCP/IP, as it’s the default Windows 2000 protocol. Revisit subnetting and addressing, too, if you need to.
For more information on installing protocols, see my article "Installing network protocols in Windows 2000." For more on TCP/IP fundamentals, check out "TechRepublic’s TCP/IP Primer."
Be on the lookout for any scenarios that present you with a 169.x.y.z IP address. Windows’ Automatic IP Addressing (AIPA) distributes IP addresses from the 169.x.y.z pool when a client experiences trouble receiving a valid address, usually from a DHCP server. Systems with a 169.x.y.z address (and subnet mask of 255.255.0.0) cannot traverse the Internet and, in fact, can communicate only with other 169.x.y.z systems on the same subnet.
Troubleshoot TCP/IP connections using the Ipconfig.exe command. Ipconfig /all is a particularly helpful command. Ping is used to check and test connections, while Nbtstat shows NetBIOS over TCP/IP information, and Netstat shows TCP/IP information.
VPNs and authenticationSecurity is of paramount importance, and you’re likely to be tested on the differences between authentication protocols.
Know the differences between all of the following:
CHAP (Challenge Authentication Protocol) encrypts usernames and passwords only.
EAP-TLS (Extensible Authentication Protocol-Transport Level Security) offers secure transmission of session data.
MD5-CHAP (Message Digest 5 Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) encrypts usernames and passwords.
MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Authentication Protocol) provides secure password transmission.
PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) isn’t secure, as passwords and usernames are sent in clear text.
SPAP (Shiva Password Authentication Protocol) encrypts password but not session data. Ensure that you’re familiar with Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), which requires IPSec. L2TP is an extension of Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), which is supported by legacy Windows platforms. Unlike PPTP, L2TP doesn’t provide a secure tunnel for session data by itself. IPSec provides the encryption of the session data through L2TP tunnels to enhance security.
NICsYou’re likely to see a few questions on network interface card (NIC) administration when you take your exam. Be prepared.
NICs, of course, are installed using Control Panel’s Add/Remove Hardware applet. The order in which protocols are bound to the NIC is configured by right-clicking on My Network Places, clicking Network And Dial-up Connections, and selecting Advanced Settings from the Advanced menu.
Update NIC drivers the way you would other drivers: Use the Device Manager. For more information on troubleshooting NICs, read these articles:
ICS and NATWith any luck, you’ll never find your resources so constrained that you have to resort to using Internet Connection Sharing (ICS), in which only a single system boasts access to the Internet. When only a single system possesses a modem, but other computers must have access to the Internet, you can use ICS to share the single Internet connection. In such cases, network address translation (NAT) plays an important role in determining a system’s subsequent IP address.
One warning sign that ICS or NAT is in use is the presence of a 192.168.x.y IP address. For more on ICS and NAT, read "The innards of Microsoft's Internet Connection Sharing and network address translation."
DNSOh yes, you should learn all there is about administering Domain Name System (DNS) in Windows 2000. Active Directory requires it. Use the Nslookup.exe command to troubleshoot DNS issues.
Become intimate with the DNS snap-in, zone configuration, and the dynamic update process. Check out all of these articles for more information on configuring and administering DNS:
DHCPJust like DNS, you must master Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) installation, configuration, and administration. Know when DHCP Relay Agents are required, how DNS integrates with DHCP, and how to configure DHCP scopes.
Ensure that you’ve spent time working with the DHCP snap-in before trying this exam. Be sure to review the TechRepublic article "Understanding new DHCP features in Windows 2000."
WINSWINSis still in Windows 2000, which is good, as many organizations rely upon it to provide NetBIOS to IP address translation. WINS, like DNS and DHCP, receives its own Win2K snap-in.
Understand WINS’ push/pull replication process. Learn or brush up on WINS different node types too. For more on WINS, read "Setting up WINS in Windows 2000."
Remote accessConfiguring and securing remote access is another important topic. Know how to configure Routing and Remote Access (RRAS), multilink support, callback security, profiles, and remote access policies. You’ll find the Routing and Remote Access utility on the Administrative Programs menu.
If you haven’t had an opportunity to spend much time with RRAS, don’t miss Jim Boyce’s article "Introducing Windows 2000 Routing and Remote Access" and "Routing and remote access on Windows 2000 Advanced Server."
Terminal ServicesIt’s possible you’ll see a question or two on Terminal Services. Three components actually form Terminal Services:
A Terminal Services server (the Win2K server running Terminal Services)
A client system
A Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) Terminal Services can be installed in two modes:
Application Server Mode is used when clients need to run applications on the Terminal Services server.
Remote Administrator Mode is used when administrators need to remotely manage Win2K servers from a single system. Terminal Services clients are available for many platforms, including:
Windows for Workgroups
WinNT 3.51 and 4.0
Win2K Pro Terminal Services clients are also available for Windows CE devices and some non-Windows clients. Terminal Services is another optional Windows Component. You install it using the Control Panel’s Add/Remove Programs applet.
Don’t forget that each client that connects to a Windows 2000 Terminal Services server requires a special Terminal Services client access license (CAL).
These TechRepublic articles provide additional reading:
"Windows 2000 Terminal Services offers improved performance and functionality"
"Using Win2K Terminal Server to save on shoe leather"
"Extend your organization with Win2K Terminal Services"
Eckel’s takeFrom DNS to WINS to DHCP and more, the Win2K Server exam covers a tremendous amount of ground. You can study brain dumps and cheat sheets all you want, but you won’t pass. It’s essential that you spend time configuring services in Win2K, adding and removing users, testing policies, and performing other administrative tasks.
You must also spend time monitoring, optimizing, and securing servers. I’ll cover those topics next week when I conclude this series of study lists for the Win2K Server test.
Do you have tips for the Win2K Server exam?We look forward to getting your input and hearing about your experiences regarding this topic. Join the discussion below or send the editor an e-mail. ?
Magnetic resonance imaging provides evidence of glymphatic drainage from human brain to cervical lymph nodes | killexams.com LOT-402 Real Questions and VCE Practice Test
Our study provides in-vivo evidence of lymphatic drainage of a CSF tracer to cervical lymph nodes. Moreover, the time series provide evidence that tracer enhancement within lymph nodes parallels glymphatic enhancement in time.
The study cohort included individuals with various CSF disorders. Therefore, this cohort cannot be considered to consist of healthy individuals, and the present data may not be representative for lymphatic drainage in healthy people. It was, however, beyond the scope of this work to determine how disease type affects lymphatic drainage. In future studies we may utilize the method to compare healthy individuals and patients with various clinical conditions to address how disease affects lymphatic drainage.
Several lines of experimental research in animals have provided evidence of lymphatic drainage from CNS to the cervical lymph nodes along cranial nerves and through the cribriform plate9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18. However, the existence of functional, classic lymphatic vessels within the CNS has been disputed. A recent breakthrough was the demonstration of functional dural lymphatic vessels1,2,6. It has been proposed that these dural lymphatic vessels may represent the anatomical continuation of the glymphatic system1, though it has not been established how the glymphatic system communicates with meningeal lymphatic vessels. It has previously also been suggested that interstitial solutes are drained from the glymphatic system into CSF before resorption into meningeal lymphatics19. The present observations, demonstrating that lymph node enhancement coincides with glymphatic, rather than CSF enhancement, favors resorption into lymphatic pathways directly from the glymphatic perivenous space. We
therefore hypothesize that the perivenous compartments of the brain and lymphatic vessels are interconnected rather than that subarachnoid CSF and substances drain directly to the meningeal lymphatic pathways.
It should be noted, however, that several aspects of glymphatic circulation are still controversial, including whether interstitial transport is propagated by convective flow or diffusion20,21. Drainage to meningeal lymphatic vessels directly from perivenous spaces, as may be inferred by our data, would strongly support a convective force through the interstitial space with direction towards the perivenous compartment.
The assumption that lymphatic drainage to cervical lymph nodes primarily originates from perivascular (glymphatic) transport receives some support from previous experimental animal research showing lymphatic drainage from cerebral perivascular circulation16,22, even though these early studies could not define the anatomical link between the perivascular compartment and lymphatic pathways.
While the available evidence for CNS lymphatic drainage to cervical lymph nodes originates from animal research; corresponding in-vivo methods for humans have yet not been developed. In a recent cohort study8, we reported brain-wide distribution of the contrast agent, and suggested that glymphatic MRI (gMRI) may be utilized to assess glymphatic circulation in man, inspired by previous observations in rodents7. The previous human study showed comparable time course for contrast enhancement within several brain regions, with peak after 24?hours. The present data extend and confirm previous observations of parenchymal CSF tracer enrichment within the brain regions studied. In the previous study8, we reported that parenchymal contrast enrichment depended on presence of contrast agent in nearby CSF and vicinity to larger, extra-parenchymal arteries. Therefore, the present observation of no parenchymal CSF tracer enrichment in one individual with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (no 13) despite
marked enrichment within CSF is extraordinary.
In the present study, the MRI contrast agent gadobutrol was utilized as CSF tracer and detected in cervical lymph nodes in 19 patients. It should be noted that a relative MRI signal increase in tissue at interest, even though when induced by presence of contrast agent cannot be used to quantify contrast agent concentrations at this stage. We estimated contrast enhancement in the largest, deep cervical lymph node available for measurement and with a length diameter of at least 15?mm. A threshold of 15?mm was selected to avoid partial volume effects and provide robust measurements. We aimed at exploring contrast enrichment in cervical lymph nodes on a phenomenological basis, since smaller lymph nodes are more susceptible to measurement error.
By normalization of MRI signal unit measurements to standardized reference tissue (superior sagittal sinus and neck muscle, respectively), a change in signal unit can be detected. However, we also measured a signal unit decline in some lymph nodes at a few time points (Table 2), which is most likely due to variations in the measured signal related to stability of the measuring method. While the medial pterygoid muscle should be considered to serve as a robust reference tissue, the muscle is not always in the nearest vicinity of the lymph node at interest, and local magnetic field inhomogeneities might affect these structures differently. Other contributors to measurement error in lymph nodes as well as reference tissue might be image noise and partial averaging effects, even though we strived to minimize these as far as possible by allowing for robust measurements at the central part of the lymph nodes. Nevertheless, despite these sources of error, the tendency for peak glymphatic and lymph node
enhancement to coincide still seems clear.
Similar to the venous drainage of the brain, lymphatic drainage to cervical lymph nodes may also show heterogeneity and inter-individual variations. To date, there are no human studies on which particular cervical lymph nodes that receive lymphatic drainage from the intracranial compartment. Hence, before this is further revealed, demonstration of lymph node enhancement with MRI is challenging, underlined by the non-enhancement of lymph nodes in 4 of 19 patients with lymph nodes >15?mm in this study. Due to this heterogeneous pattern, we selected the neck lymph node with the largest degree of enhancement when more than one neck lymph node was available for measurement. Other imaging modalities, such as positron emission tomography, might demonstrate as more sensitive to assess cervical lymph node uptake of CSF tracer.
Our findings point to a unique feature of human lymphatic drainage from the CNS. Early non-enhancement in neck lymph nodes suggests a more limited role of human CSF drainage through nasal lymphatics and perineural root sleeves than previously assumed based on animal studies23,24. Moreover, the role of lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses could be more profound than previously thought, given their possible function as a main drainage system of the brain-wide glymphatic pathways1,2. In the 15 individuals with lymph node enhancement >1%, enhancement peaked at 24–48?hours in 11/15 individuals (73%). In this human cohort, brain glymphatic enhancement typically occurred after 24?hours. This is considerably slower than what is observed in anesthetized mice and rats, where glymphatic enhancement peaks within 2?hours7. Comparably, a previous study injecting contrast and dye to the cisterna magna of rats showed much faster lymphatic drainage to cervical lymph nodes25 than in the current human
cohort. Of note is that MRI of lymph nodes was not done during the time interval of 6–9?hours in 7/19 individuals. Peak enhancement at this time can therefore not be excluded in these individuals.
We observed peak CSF tracer enhancement in the brain parenchymal regions of interest and cervical lymph nodes after 24?hours, i.e. after one night’s sleep (Fig. 2). While this observation is of interest, we cannot conclude whether peak enhancement after 24?hours is related to sleep since we did not perform MRI between the time points 6–9?hours (late afternoon) and 24?hours after administration of contrast agent (next morning). Another factor is that the patients were lying flat until the 6–9?hours scan, and thereafter were allowed to move freely. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the role of sleep in human glymphatic circulation, preferably also including a non-sleep control group. From animal studies, it has previously been suggested that sleep has a profound effect on glymphatic circulation and thereby brain clearance of interstitial solutes. Hence, Xie et al.5 showed that natural sleep or anesthesia is accompanied with a 60% increase in the interstitial space.
Furthermore, in that study, the increase in interstitial space increased glymphatic clearance of Aß twofold. On the other hand, others26 using contrast-enhanced MRI and near-infrared fluorescence imaging found that general anesthesia reduced glymphatic function in mice, as compared with awake mice.
Lymphatic failure might be involved both in neuro-immunological and neuro-degenerative diseases. The cerebral lymphatic drainage system may be a pathway for immune cells10. In addition, it may be crucial for clearance of toxic waste solutes such as amyloid-ß and hyperphosphorylated tau tangles; of which pathologic accumulation in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease27. Further development of imaging tools to assess lymphatic clearance may therefore show useful.
In our study, we applied the macrocyclic MRI contrast agent gadobutrol as a CSF tracer. Gadobutrol is well suited for this purpose because of its low molecular size (MW 604?Da). It is also highly hydrophilic and non-ionic, and distributes easily in water28. In a previous study assessing glymphatic function in rat brain, the linear MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA (molecular weight 938?Da) was used7. For use in humans, the macrocyclic contrast agents may be preferable above linear agents29, because they appear more stable in biological tissue30.
Moreover, in previous studies in mice3,31, the contrast agent was injected into the cisterna magna at rates and volumes that potentially could overwhelm the intracranial compartment and interfere with CSF circulation32. In our study, we injected a total of less than 5?ml fluid into the subarachnoid space at level of the lumbar spine, which should not affect intracranial pressure and CSF flow in humans. Also, there were no serious adverse events following gadobutrol administration.
Comparing the different brain parenchymal regions of interest showed the most pronounced CSF enrichment within the inferior frontal gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus, which are located close to the leptomeningeal arterial trunks. This observation compares with the view that pulsations are the force behind parenchymal convective glymphatic flow8,33.
Assessment of cervical lymph node enhancement might benefit from MRI sequences with image slice of less thickness than applied in this study (3?mm), preferably isotropic 3D volume acquisitions, which also would allow for reconstruction in multiple planes.
A possible cause of cervical lymph node enhancement might be circulating contrast agent in the blood. For example, altered blood-brain-barrier might cause leakage of gadobutrol to the vascular circulation. This seemed, however, less likely since enhancement in reference regions (sagittal sinus for cranial MRI and muscle for neck MRI) was none.
The importance of lymphatic drainage compared to other potential routes for clearance of brain water and solutes is currently not known. Using phantom devices with known concentrations of a given contrast agent in conjunction with MRI acquisitions, it should be possible, however, to quantify lymphatic drainage. An MRI based quantification routine could thereby determine lymphatic failure as a pathogenic factor behind brain disease.
In summary, our study provides in-vivo evidence of CSF tracer drainage to cervical lymph nodes in humans. The temporal course of lymph node enhancement coincided in time with brain glymphatic enhancement rather than with CSF enhancement. This is in contrast to previous animal studies demonstrating lymphatic drainage from CSF via the cribriform plate and nasal mucosa, and at a much shorter time span. In the end, improved knowledge of human brain lymphatic drainage is expected to shed new light on pathogenic mechanisms behind degenerative and inflammatory brain diseases.
How Safe Is Our Food Supply? | killexams.com LOT-402 Real Questions and VCE Practice Test
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A recent survey published by the International Food Information Council found that Americans are concerned about food safety. Foodborne illness resides as the top concern of survey respondents.
These facts may sound worrying. Thankfully, they don't tell the whole story. The survey also reveals that fully two-thirds of Americans are confident in the safety of the nation's food supply.
Data support that confidence. For example, the number and severity of foodborne illnesses appears to be trending downwards in many places, including California.
Part of our confidence in our food supply no doubt stems from regulations. But rules can (and often are) imperfect, something I detail at length in my forthcoming book, Biting the Hands that Feed Us: How Fewer, Smarter Laws Would Make Our Food System More Sustainable. And, as I wrote about in a 2012 law-review article, regulations intended to make our food safer often impose new costs but fail to improve safety.
Earlier this week—keeping the above facts in mind—the FDA published final rules to clarify and update its "GRAS" classification system. The acronym "GRAS," which stands for "generally recognized as safe," refers to the status of permissible food additives.
GRAS rules have been controversial for some time. On the one hand, critics have viewed the self-policing approach favored by the rules as too heavily weighed in favor of food producers and, ergo, bad both for consumers and food safety.
On the other hand, the rules may give consumers a false sense of safety. Even then, the FDA is hardly handcuffed by GRAS. In 2015, for example, the agency effectively banned partially hydrogenated oils that contain trans fats, declaring these oils "are no longer GRAS." Many, me included, viewed the ban as a foolhardy attack both on food freedom and on the food industry, and an overstepping of the agency's powers under the GRAS rules.
It probably comes as no surprise that the new rules have also proven controversial, and for some of the same old reasons.
Sen. Ed Markey (D-Mass.) blasted the updated rules, which include continued voluntary reporting by the food industry, as the equivalent of "a self-graded take home exam that industry doesn't even have to hand in."
Food Safety News reported "publication of the final rule has generated opposition from some of the so-called food police groups."
But a group of toxicologists surveyed by Food Navigator, a source of news on the food industry, argued "critics have not provided any evidence that the GRAS system is putting the public at risk." Neither is the food industry. And it's America's food producers who I believe are rightly due a great deal of credit not just for the safety of the nation's food supply but also for our confidence in that food supply.
Take McDonald's. The company, which has seen its stock rebound after it switched to an all-day breakfast menu, has been testing out fresh beef in some restaurants. (The company's burgers are currently made from frozen beef.) Though that's something consumers appear to want, many of the company's franchisees worry that the switch could lead to increased incidents of foodborne illness. Competitors, including Wendy's and In-N-Out Burger, already use fresh beef. Whatever the ultimate decision is from McDonald's, it's likely one that will strive to balance consumer demands with food safety.
Businesses outside the food industry are also working to make food safer. A recent study by IBM researchers on the use of "big data" to mitigate outbreaks of foodborne illness found promising results.
"IBM announced its scientists have discovered that analyzing retail-scanner data from grocery stores against maps of confirmed cases of foodborne illness can speed early investigations," reports the website Phys.org.
Thanks to a combination of technological fixes and innovations, consumer demands, and regulations, better reporting, food-safety litigators, and other measures, our nation's food supply is largely safe, and appears to be growing safer.
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