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Which transport layer protocol provides best-effort delivery service with no acknowledgment receipt required?
UDP provides a connectionless datagram service that offers best-effort delivery, which means that UDP does not guarantee delivery or verify sequencing for any datagrams. A source host that needs reliable communication must use either TCP or a program that provides its own sequencing and acknowledgment services.
Refer to the exhibit.
A network device needs to be installed in the place of the icon labeled Network Device to accommodate a leased line attachment to the Internet. Which network device and interface configuration meets the minimum requirements for this installation?
a router with two Ethernet interfaces
a switch with two Ethernet interfaces
a router with one Ethernet and one serial interface
a switch with one Ethernet and one serial interface
a router with one Ethernet and one modem interface
Only a router can terminate a leased line attachment access circuit, and only a router can connect two different IP networks. Here, we will need a router with two interfaces, one serial connection for the line attachment and one Ethernet interface to connect to the switch on the LAN.
Refer to the exhibit.
Mary is sending an instant message to Robert. The message will be broken into a series of packets that will traverse all network devices. What addresses will populate these packets as they are forwarded from Router1 to Router2?
The Source and Destination IP address is not going to change. Host 1 IP address will stay as being the source IP and the Host 2 IP address will stay the destination IP address. Those two are not going to change. For the MAC address it is going to change each time it goes from one hope to another. (Except switches… they don’t change anything)
Frame leaving HOST 1 is going to have a source MAC of Host 1 and a destination MAC of Router 1.
Router 1 is going to strip that info off and then will make the source MAC address of Router1’s exiting interface, and making Router2’s interface as the destination MAC address.
Then the same will happen… Router2 is going to change the source/destination info to the source MAC being the Router2 interface that it is going out, and the destination will be Host2’s MAC address.
Refer to the exhibit.
As packets travel from Mary to Robert, which three devices will use the destination MAC address of the packet to determine a forwarding path? (Choose three.)
Switches use the destination MAC address information for forwarding traffic, while routers use the destination IP address information.
Local Area Networks employ Layer 2 Switches and Bridges to forward and filter network traffic. Switches and Bridges operate at the Data Link Layer of the Open System Interconnect Model (OSI). Since Switches and Bridges operate at the Layer 2 they operate more intelligently than hubs, which work at Layer 1 (Physical Layer) of the OSI. Because the switches and bridges are able to listen to the traffic on the wire to examine the source and destination MAC address. Being able to listen to the traffic also allows the switches and bridges to compile a MAC address table to better filter and forward network traffic.
To accomplish the above functions switches and bridges carry out the following tasks:
MAC address learning by a switch or a bridge is accomplished by the same method. The switch or bridge listens to each device connected to each of its ports and scan the incoming frame for the source MAC address. This creates a MAC address to port map that is cataloged in the switches/bridge MAC database. Another name for the MAC address table is content addressable memory or CAM table.
When a switch or bridge is listening to the network traffic, it receives each frame and compares it to the MAC address table. By checking the MAC table the switch/ bridge are able o determine which port the frame came in on. If the frame is on the MAC table the frame is filtered or transmitted on only that port. If the switch determines that the frame is not on the MAC table, the frame is forwarded out to all ports except the incoming port.
Refer to the exhibit.
The host in Kiev sends a request for an HTML document to the server in Minsk. What will be the source IP address of the packet as it leaves the Kiev router?
Although the source and destination MAC address will change as a packet traverses a network, the source and destination IP address will not unless network address translation (NAT) is being done, which is not the case here.
Which network device functions only at Layer 1 of the OSI model?
Most hubs are amplifying the electrical signal; therefore, they are really repeaters with several ports. Hubs and repeaters are Layer 1 (physical layer) devices.
Refer to the exhibit.
HostX is transferring a file to the FTP server. Point A represents the frame as it goes toward the Toronto router. What will the Layer 2 destination address be at this point?
A. abcd.1123.0045 B. 192.168.7.17
C. aabb.5555.2222 D. 192.168.1.1
For packets destined to a host on another IP network, the destination MAC address will be the LAN interface of the router. Since the FTP server lies on a different network, the host will know to send the frame to its default gateway, which is Toronto.
Refer to the exhibit.
If host A sends an IP packet to host B, what will the source physical address be in the frame when it reaches host B?
When packets transfer from one host to another across a routed segment, the source IP address always remains the same source IP address, and the source physical (MAC) address will be the existing routerâs interface address. Similarly, the destination IP address always remains the same and the destination physical (MAC) address is the destination routerâs interface address.
Refer to the exhibit.
If the hubs in the graphic were replaced by switches, what would be virtually eliminated?
Modern wired networks use a network switch to eliminate collisions. By connecting each device directly to a port on the switch, either each port on a switch becomes its own collision domain (in the case of half duplex links) or the possibility of collisions is eliminated entirely in the case of full duplex links.
Which protocol uses a connection-oriented service to deliver files between end systems?
TCP is an example of a connection-oriented protocol. It requires a logical connection to be established between the two processes before data is exchanged. The connection must be maintained during the entire time that communication is taking place, then released afterwards. The process is much like a telephone call, where a virtual circuit is established–the caller must know the person’s telephone number and the phone must be answered–before the message can be delivered.
TCP/IP is also a connection-oriented transport with orderly release. With orderly release, any data remaining in the buffer is sent before the connection is terminated. The release is accomplished in a three-way handshake between client and server processes. The connection-oriented protocols in the
OSI protocol suite, on the other hand, do not support orderly release. Applications perform any handshake necessary for ensuring orderly release.
Examples of services that use connection-oriented transport services are telnet, rlogin, and ftp.
Which layer of the TCP/IP stack combines the OSI model physical and data link layers?
network access layer
The Internet Protocol Suite, TCP/IP, is a suite of protocols used for communication over the internet. The TCP/ IP model was created after the OSI 7 layer model for two major reasons. First, the foundation of the Internet was built using the TCP/IP suite and through the spread of the World Wide Web and Internet, TCP/IP has been preferred. Second, a project researched by the Department of Defense (DOD) consisted of creating the TCP/IP protocols. The DOD’s goal was to bring international standards which could not be met by the OSI model.
Since the DOD was the largest software consumer and they preferred the TCP/IP suite, most vendors used this model rather than the OSI. Below is a side by side comparison of the TCP/IP and OSI models.
Which OSI layer header contains the address of a destination host that is on another network?
Only network address contains this information. To transmit the packets the sender uses network address and datalink address. But the layer 2 address represents just the address of the next hop device on the way to the sender. It is changed on each hop. Network address remains the same.
On the left are various network protocols. On the right are the layers of the TCP/IP model. Assuming a reliable connection is required, move the protocols on the left to the TCP/IP layers on the right to show the proper encapsulation for an email message sent by a host on a LAN. (Not all options are used.)
Select and Place:
Which three statements are true about the operation of a full-duplex Ethernet network? (Choose three.)
There are no collisions in full-duplex mode.
A dedicated switch port is required for each full-duplex node.
Ethernet hub ports are preconfigured for full-duplex mode.
In a full-duplex environment, the host network card must check for the availability of the network media before transmitting.
The host network card and the switch port must be capable of operating in full-duplex mode.
Half-duplex Ethernet is defined in the original 802.3 Ethernet and Cisco says you only use one wire pair with a digital signal running in both directions on the wire. It also uses the CSMA/CD protocol to help prevent collisions and to permit retransmitting if a collision does occur. If a hub is attached to a switch, it must operate in half-duplex mode because the end stations must be able to detect collisions. Half-duplex Ethernet â typically 10BaseT â is only about 30 to 40 percent efficient as Cisco sees it, because a large 10BaseT network will usually only give you 3- to 4Mbps â at most.
Full-duplex Ethernet uses two pairs of wires, instead of one wire pair like half duplex. Also, full duplex uses a point-to-point connection between the transmitter of the transmitting device and the receiver of the receiving device, which means that with full-duplex data transfer, you get a faster data transfer compared to half duplex. And because the transmitted data is sent on a different set of wires than the received data, no collisions occur. The reason you donât need to worry about collisions is because now Full-duplex Ethernet is like a freeway with multiple lanes instead of the single-lane road provided by half duplex. Full-duplex Ethernet is supposed to offer 100 percent efficiency in both directions; this means you can get 20Mbps with a 10Mbps Ethernet running full duplex, or 200Mbps for FastEthernet.
Microsoft MD-101 Exam (Managing Modern Desktops) Detailed Information
Microsoft Certification Program benefits
Learn about the benefits of the Microsoft Certification Program. Find answers to frequently asked questions regarding program benefits and Microsoft accounts.
Q. What are the benefits of achieving a Microsoft Certification?
Microsoft Certification is an industry standard that is recognised worldwide. After you earn your Microsoft Certification, you have access to a number of benefits, which can be found on your benefits and exams dashboard.
Q. What will I find on the benefits and exams dashboard and who has access?
Individuals who have passed a Microsoft exam have access to the benefits and exams dashboard.
On the site, you will find:
A downloadable version of your certificate (you can order a printed copy); MOS members will need their Certiport login information
Your official Microsoft Certification downloadable transcript and access to the transcript-sharing tool
A tool to create and download certification logos
Your contact preferences and profile
Your Certification Planner
A sign up for the MCP Flash newsletters
Promotional offers, discounts and additional services
Q. What is a Charter certificate?
Charter Members are the pioneering group of individuals who achieve a certification within six months following the retail release date of the certification. (People who pass the beta exams will receive the Charter certificate after the certification is commercially released.) Charter Members are recognised by being given the Charter version of the certificate acknowledging their early adoption of the technology solution. The Charter version of the certificate includes the word "Charter".
Q. Which certifications are eligible for Charter status?
If you have any of the following certifications, you are eligible for the Charter certificate: Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA), Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE), Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer (MCSD), Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS), Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), Microsoft Certified Solutions Master (MCSM), or Microsoft Certified Professional Developer (MCPD). Exceptions include those certifications that are released when the technology covered is no longer the latest version of the technology. These include the MCSA: Windows 7, the MCSA: SQL Server 2008 and the MCSA: Windows Server 2008.
In addition, Microsoft Specialist (Specialist) certifications released in and after September 2015 are also eligible for Charter status, including all Windows 10, Big Data Analytics and Cloud Data Platform Specialist certifications.
Q. How much time do I have to order my Charter certificate?
You can digitally download or order your Charter certificate at any point after it is earned.
Q. When does the Charter certificate period start for localised exams?
The six-month "clock" start time is based on the earliest time the certification can be earned, which is typically based on English-language exam availability. For example, if an exam is available in German two months after the English version is available, the German candidate has only four more months to earn a Charter certificate.
Q. I have heard that Microsoft sponsors an Elevate America veterans initiative to help our country's veterans and their spouses acquire the skills and resources that they need to be successful in today's workplace. What is this initiative?
Through this initiative, Microsoft convenes a coalition of public, private and non-profit organisations that are interested in contributing expertise, cash and in-kind resources to help U.S. veterans and their spouses build the skills and access the resources that they need to be successful in today's workforce.
Accessing the benefits and exams dashboard
Q. How do I qualify for access to the benefits and exams dashboard?
The benefits and exams dashboard is available if you have passed a Microsoft qualified exam. It provides customised resources specific to your achievements and certifications.
Sign in to the benefits and exams dashboard
Q. How do I access the Microsoft Certification benefits and exams dashboard for the first time?
After you pass your first Microsoft Certification exam, you will receive a welcome email message outlining the steps needed to gain access to the benefits and exams dashboard. Please check your junk folder to ensure that the automatic email message is not blocked by your spam filter. Here are the instructions you will receive in the email message.
Create a Microsoft account if you don't already have one.
On your first visit, click on the link provided in the email and use your Microsoft account to log in to the benefits and exams dashboard.
Note This must be done within 90 days of receiving the email to meet security requirements.
In some cases, you may be required to enter your Microsoft Certification ID (MC ID) and temporary access code, which will be supplied in the email message.
On future visits, log in to the benefits and exams dashboard using the same Microsoft account.
For assistance, go to Microsoft training and certification help.
Q. I do not know my Microsoft Certification ID (formerly MCP ID). What should I do?
Your MC ID is shown in your welcome email as well as in the profile information on the benefits and exams dashboard. If you are unable to access the benefits and exams dashboard, contact your Microsoft Regional Service Centre for assistance.
Q. What is the access code required for the benefits and exams dashboard?
An access code is a unique code that allows first-time access to the benefits and exams dashboard and, if required, is provided in your welcome email. You can only use the access code to sign in to the benefits and exams dashboard for the first time. If you misplace your code or it has retired, contact your Microsoft Regional Service Centre for assistance.
Q. How long does it take for my data to update after accessing the benefits and exams dashboard for the first time?
After you register, you must wait 24 hours before accessing your program benefits.
Q. I am a returning user and cannot access the benefits and exams dashboard. How do I gain access?
If you cannot remember the Microsoft account information associated with your account, or you have other difficulty accessing the benefits and exams dashboard, contact the Microsoft Regional Service Centre in your area.
Note If you have a Hotmail account, MSN email account or Microsoft Passport, it is your Microsoft account.
Q. I saved the URL to my Microsoft Certification Program benefits in my Favourites, but when I navigate there I am redirected to a sign-in page, not the page I am trying to access.
Because online benefits are available only to eligible Microsoft Certification Program members, you must enter your Microsoft account credentials to access your online benefits. After your account is authenticated, you will be redirected to the page you are trying to access.
Q. Why is my name on the benefits and exams dashboard different from what it is in my Microsoft Personal Profile?
You are required to use your legal name for the benefits and exams dashboard. The Microsoft Personal Profile is associated with your Microsoft account.
Q. How do I update my legal name?
To update your legal name, contact your Microsoft Regional Service Centre.
Q. How do I update the information in my Microsoft Personal Profile?
You can update your Microsoft Personal Profile in the Profile Centre.
To change the name that is associated with your Microsoft Certification ID (formerly, MCP ID), contact your Microsoft Regional Service Centre.
Q. I updated my email address at the Profile Centre, but it was not changed on my Microsoft Certification transcript. What is wrong?
It can take up to 48 hours for changes in your profile to appear on your Microsoft Certification transcript. Check your transcript later to verify that your email address has been updated.
Q. I entered an email address in my Microsoft Personal Profile, but the email field is still blank. What happened?
After you update your Personal Profile, a message is sent to the email address noted in your profile. For the changes to be saved, you must follow the instructions in the email message to confirm the update. Otherwise, the email address in your profile will be removed because it has not been confirmed.
Q. How do I use the Microsoft Certification logos, and what are my rights and responsibilities when I use them?
When you access the logo tool, you are required to read and accept the MCP logo guidelines to correctly promote your relationship with Microsoft and to protect the integrity of the logos. You must sign in to the benefits and exams dashboard in order to access these guidelines.
Q. How can I download electronic files of Microsoft Certification logos?
Logos are available for download from the benefits and exams dashboard.
Q. I passed a test a week ago and I want to print my logo, but I cannot select it for printing.
The test that you passed might not qualify you to print that specific logo. If you believe this is an error, contact the Microsoft Regional Service Centre.
Q. How do I report misuse of a Microsoft Certification logo?
Contact the Microsoft Regional Service Centre.
Microsoft account and Profile Centre
Q. What is Microsoft account?
Microsoft account (formerly Windows Live ID) enables you to simply use your email address and password to sign in. After you create your Microsoft account, you can access all Microsoft account sites and services. If you already have an MSN Hotmail, MSN Messenger or Passport account, it is your Microsoft account.
Learn more about Microsoft account.
Q. If I do not have a Microsoft account, do I need to set one up to access the benefits and exams dashboard?
Yes. You can sign up for a Microsoft account now. You will not be able to access the benefits and exams dashboard without one.
Q. If I already have a Microsoft account, can I use it to access the benefits and exams dashboard?
Q. I do not remember the Microsoft account I used to access the benefits and exams dashboard. What should I do?
If you cannot remember the Microsoft account that you used to access the benefits and exams dashboard, contact your Microsoft Regional Service Centre for assistance.
Q. Will my Microsoft account expire?
If your Microsoft account is unused for one year, your Microsoft account may expire, and you may need to re-establish a Microsoft account.
Q. How do I update my profile?
Log in to the benefits and exams dashboard and, under the Account menu in the top right corner of the page, click Profile settings.
Q. What should I regularly update in my profile?
Update the following information to ensure that you receive communications from Microsoft:
Your contact preferences: Specify whether you want to receive promotional information about Microsoft products, services and events.
Your personal information: View, add or edit your personal contact information, such as your email address, business or personal address and phone numbers.
Your business information: View, add or edit information about your job and your organisation so that we can personalise content and recommend materials that match your job, organisation or industry.
Your technology preferences: View, add or edit information about your technology interests so that we can personalise content and recommend materials that match your interests.
Q. What if I do not want to receive email messages from Microsoft?
You are under no obligation to receive email messages from Microsoft. However, if you indicate that you do not want to receive communications from Microsoft through email, you cannot receive e-newsletters, such as the MCP Flash and MCT Flash. These communications provide up-to-date information on changes in training and certification resources, such as discontinued exams, Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) benefits and special offers.
Q. How do I ensure that I receive communications by email?
Visit the Microsoft Profile Centre to indicate that you want to receive email messages from Microsoft.
Sign in to the Microsoft Profile Center to view and update your profile
Profile Center screenshot
Click My Contact Preferences, located on either the Profile Centre home page (shown above) or on the left-hand side of the page (shown below). Select E-Mail Address, and then click Save.
Note You can always unsubscribe from selected e-newsletters. However, if you do not select the E-Mail Address option, Microsoft cannot send you any information by email, including product notifications and news.
My Contact Preferences screenshot
Sign-up for e-newsletters: Select Manage Subscriptions on the left-hand side of the page. Tick all of the subscriptions that you want to receive, and then click Subscribe. You can also unsubscribe from publications.
Accessing your transcript
Q. Where can I find my transcript or see which exams I have passed?
Access your transcript from the benefits and exams dashboard.
Under the section called Transcript, click on the View link.
Q. How do I give my employer or others access to my transcript via a secure connection that they can trust?
Microsoft offers a tool called Transcript Sharing, which can be accessed from the benefits and exams dashboard. Under the section called Transcript, click the Share link.
You will be asked to create an Access Code (which can be changed at any time) and given a Transcript ID. You will then provide these two codes to your selected audience, along with a URL to view your transcript.
Q. I have certifications from multiple providers; can I combine all my credentials into one transcript?
Microsoft has worked with the IT Certification Council (ITCC), along with other industry certification providers, to provide MCPs with the opportunity to create one transcript across providers. Under the Transcript section of the benefits and exams dashboard, click Create a multi-vendor transcript. You will then be asked to provide your transcript sharing codes. The transcript sharing code can be found by clicking Share your transcript.
Q. What if I cannot print or access my transcript?
If you cannot print or access your transcript, contact your Microsoft Regional Service Centre.
To ensure a prompt response:
Use the email address associated with your Microsoft Certification ID (MC ID), if possible.
Have your Microsoft Certification ID number available.
If you do not know your Microsoft Certification ID, have other information available, such as your address, telephone number, exam numbers and completion dates.
Q. I viewed my transcript but it is missing data. Why can't I see all my data?
It can take up to two weeks for Microsoft to receive and process your exam records. If it has been more than two weeks since you took your exam, and the results still do not appear on your transcript, or if you notice any other problems, contact your Microsoft Regional Service Centre.
Training and certification from Microsoft
Fulfill your potential and make the most of your investment in Microsoft technology with certification, classroom training, e-learning, and books from Microsoft and Microsoft Learning Partners.
A Microsoft Certification validates your expertise in a Microsoft technology. As a Microsoft Certified Professional, you’ll have access to community resources and tools that allow you to exchange ideas with peers, increase your knowledge and skills, and broaden your career opportunities.
Microsoft Certified Trainers
Microsoft Certified Trainers (MCTs) are classroom and e-learning instructors, training and certification consultants, authors, conference presenters, and user group leaders who combine their expertise, experience, and passion for training and leadership to help Microsoft customers and partners realize their full learning potential.
Microsoft Learning Partners
Microsoft Partners with the Learning competency (Learning Partners) are training companies that meet stringent Microsoft qualifications to train IT professionals and developers on Microsoft technologies.
Microsoft Imagine Academy
The Microsoft Imagine Academy program connects the world of education to the world of work by enabling faculty and students to acquire new technology skills in an academic setting.
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